What about the manufacturing workers in the age of

2022-08-02
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In the era of "machine replacement", what should manufacturing workers do?

■ labor daily yejiaqi photography Gong Junqi

. More than 30 operators each operate a piece of equipment. After one process is completed, it is sent to the next process by trolley. Sometimes parts are moved around and bumped. After all processes are completed, some parts of the parts need to be manually inspected

10 years later, what is the scene in the machining workshop

the deputy to the Municipal People's Congress and the senior manager of the maintenance department of the engine plant of SAIC Volkswagen Automobile Co., Ltd. told that "people sea tactics" 1. What are the characteristics of the fatigue testing machine? It has already become history, and the production line has been fully automated. The robot is responsible for grasping the parts and will not cause hard injuries during the transmission process. The number of production lines in the machining workshop has been greatly reduced, leaving only a few people to take care of the automation equipment and deal with emergencies. The parts that rely on manual inspection have been replaced by many visual inspection devices

artificial intelligence, industrial robots and other advanced equipment continue to flow into the workshop, which has become an irresistible trend in the manufacturing industry. When intelligence gradually replaces "artificial" and the traditional labor force is greatly reduced, what will the workers do? At this year's National People's Congress, the delegates pointed out that innovative thinking determines success or failure, and posts are still the best vocational training teachers

reality: "unmanned" will be able to return to its roots within two years

in a few years, CNC workers will be eliminated

factory automation, and unmanned workshop is the general trend. Deputy xuxiaoping said that from the standpoint of the enterprise, he welcomed this change. "After automation, the stability of data can lead to the stability of quality. In the past, the increase of quality cost caused by mistakes in manual operation has been significantly reduced." Xuxiaoping said that the increase of automation rate also directly leads to the annual increase of labor productivity (i.e. the output rate per worker), which reduces the employment cost of enterprises and improves the core competitiveness of enterprises

some people have questioned: the factory also needs funds to purchase equipment. Is it really worthwhile to replace machines with people? Xu Xiaoping calculated a sum of money carefully for this purpose: Taking the assembly department of his factory as an example, the replacement of machines will recover the cost within two years at most. Moreover, machines are safer than manual operation and will play a positive role in the stability of wages

wangshuqun, a deputy to the Municipal People's Congress, served as the head of the general assembly team of the docking mechanism and the chief technician of Shanghai Space Administration in the third division (No. 9 branch) of Shanghai Aerospace Equipment Manufacturing Corporation. From the front-line position, he also felt the great impact of artificial intelligence on the traditional manufacturing industry

take the numerical control workers of Shanghai Aerospace Equipment Manufacturing General Factory as an example. 20 years ago, they were very popular, and their income was more than 1.5 times that of ordinary employees; Ten years ago, their income was about 1.2 times higher than that of ordinary employees. Now, it can only be equal to ordinary employees. "In 10 or 20 years? At present, 3D printing technology is advancing by leaps and bounds, and various new technology research results are emerging in endlessly. I speculate that most manufacturing enterprises will use 3D printers to carry out production work, and CNC workers may be replaced."

"in the 1990s, the textile industry had a brilliant time, with more than 1million relevant practitioners in Shanghai. But now, the textile industry has long lost its former reputation. Similarly, in recent years, the steel and chemical industries are also changing from prosperity to decline." Wangshuqun believes that the times are changing, and industries that do not meet the needs of urban development will eventually face the fate of being eliminated. In such a situation, if the manufacturing factories and front-line workers cannot transform as soon as possible, they will eventually become the outcast of the times like textile workers

suggestions: be enterprising even at the grass-roots level

workers should innovate like scientists

Wang shuqun participated in group discussion

under the background of the era of "machine replacement", the industrial workforce has reached a critical period of transformation. How can artificial overcome artificial intelligence? The delegates believed that under this trend, workers themselves need to have a sense of innovation and improve their technical ability

Wang shuqun believes that if the post is replaced, it means that his skills or knowledge level is aging and can not keep up with the development needs of the times. "You must constantly update your knowledge base and have a desire to make progress. This is the most effective means to resist the risk of job change." He said that no matter how good a machine is, it is also created by people. The development and application of artificial intelligence and the production of robots are not decided by scientists as soon as they pat their heads. It is inseparable from highly skilled talents working at the grass-roots level from the concept and technology to the real implementation and use

"Shanghai has a large number of industrial workers, but top talents are still rare. In fact, the development of new technology has brought impact to workers, but also opportunities." Wangshuqun said that at present, more and more front-line workers such as Bao Qifan and others have won the national progress award. In the past six years, four front-line production workers of Shanghai Aerospace Equipment Manufacturing Plant have won the Shanghai Science and technology progress award

why can some workers go to a higher platform in the same position? Wangshuqun believes that this is closely related to their innovation ability. The rapid development of new technologies has forced workers to grow and stimulated their learning awareness. "The model workers of the 1950s and 1960s embodied the spirit of hard work and selfless dedication. However, the spirit of model workers today is more reflected in their ability to innovate, think, find and solve problems. Even at the grass-roots level, workers in the new era have to work like scientists."

xuxiaoping also shared his own experience. "The biggest feature of our maintenance work is that we are always dealing with new situations. Sometimes, the development of new technologies will make it difficult for me to resist, which requires me to take the initiative to think and learn. It can be said that I have been a worker for more than 40 years, of which more than 30 years have been continuous learning." For example, after the laser technology was introduced into automobile manufacturing, the initial workers did not understand it. Once the laser equipment broke down, they would often wait for several weeks to repair, and the losses would be immeasurable. Under this pressure, Xu Xiaoping began to learn laser theory by himself, consulted suppliers and technicians, and visited foreign experts. Finally, through repeated research, he finally mastered self maintenance

Xu Xiaoping said that he now manages more than 700 intelligent devices, but this does not mean that the workers have nothing to do. They have to maintain the equipment and keep learning. "Machine replacement" is just a more technical position from a production line operator to a robot operator. Under such changes, workers must be enterprising and innovative

countermeasures: truly implement vocational training

talent training should closely follow industrial transformation

Xu Xiaoping introduces the current training situation of front-line workers

workers should have the consciousness of transformation, and enterprises can also help with training. The delegates believed that posts were still the best teachers, and workers could learn skills first and then theories; During this period, enterprises should stand up to help employees keep up with the pace of technological transformation

"mentoring" is still an effective means of skill training

"I have found that all workers in front-line posts can find out equipment and robots in practice, and their success rate is faster than that of those who came from a professional class. Why? Because he can encounter many problems in the workshop, these experience in dealing with problems can not be learned from professional books." Xuxiaoping pointed out that the traditional way of teaching and mentoring and the teacher leading the apprentice is still very effective even in the era of artificial intelligence. In his opinion, many enterprises' technical training is now promoted by the human resources department, but the real career transformation and upgrading, especially the transformation of skilled workers, should still be through the traditional way of mentoring

"this customized, hands-on instruction is much more effective than entrusting social institutions to train workers." Xuxiaoping disclosed that he is starting to open a forum on Shanghai technicians to let other front-line workers learn from their teachers by publishing information about the expertise and majors of some highly skilled talents. Not only that, this platform will also break the industry threshold and realize cross-border pairing. "Many types of work have no industry characteristics. No matter which industry comes out, if you want to learn technology, you can worship him. The skills themselves should also be socialized, not industry-specific." Xuxiaoping said that the technicians are expected to go online after the Spring Festival. At that time, they will hold group teacher worship meetings once or twice a year according to the social response, so as to create an atmosphere of learning technology in the society

make full use of staff training fees to help skills transformation

enterprises are the main body to carry out vocational training and improve staff skills. Drawing and using vocational education and training funds in full according to law is an important guarantee for enterprises to strengthen staff training and improve their skills

it is learned that China's labor law stipulates that employers should establish a vocational training system and draw and use employee training funds in accordance with national regulations; The regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Vocational Education stipulates that the enterprise shall draw the full amount of vocational education and training funds according to 1.5% of the total wages of employees; Enterprises with high skill requirements for employees, many training consumables, heavy training tasks and good economic benefits can be withdrawn at the rate of 2.5% and included in the cost expenditure

however, in 2019, the Shenzhen Municipal Workers' Technology Association allocated 100million yuan each year for major high-tech projects, scientific and technological R & D funds and technological progress funds in Shenzhen for five consecutive years. A special investigation was conducted among 1416 enterprises in 52 development zones (industrial parks). It was found that nearly one third of the enterprises did not withdraw education funds according to law, and nearly half of the enterprises did not fully use the annual education funds, Nearly one third of the enterprises failed to allocate 60% of the education and training funds to front-line employees

To this end, at this year's National People's Congress, xuxiaoping submitted to the Congress a proposal on strengthening the legal withdrawal and use of enterprise staff education funds. He called for greater efforts to publicize policies and guide enterprises to withdraw and use education and training funds in full according to law. For those not fully extracted or not used as required after extraction, 2. Force measuring range: 2% ⑴ 00%fs; Enterprises shall suspend the subsidy of local education surcharges. He suggested giving full play to the maximum utility of enterprise education and training funds and encouraging enterprises to carry out education and training relying on the chief technician studio. "We should ensure that all staff education funds are in place in full, on time and according to needs, truly benefit all skilled workers, and enable them to have sufficient funds to realize technological transformation." He said

colleges and universities actively think about change and adapt to technological change

at present, the principals of some application-oriented colleges and universities have also keenly captured the impact of the new technological revolution such as artificial intelligence on the career development of workers. What they are thinking about is how to shorten the training cycle for students to become highly skilled talents

"we are always career oriented, closely follow the needs of Shanghai's urban development, master the industrial trends, understand the market demand, and timely adjust the training plan of students." Representative Yutao, President of Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, told that in 2018, China's colleges and universities set up the major of Intelligent Manufacturing Engineering for the first time. The Second Polytechnic University is one of the four colleges and universities in Shanghai that took the lead in setting up a major. Students will receive basic training of intelligent manufacturing engineers from theory to practical application, and become a composite application-oriented enterprise in intelligent equipment fault diagnosis, maintenance and repair, intelligent factory system operation, management and system integration

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